Petroleum is the most important natural source of hydrocarbon. Name a molecule that has triple bond. Example, Ethene reacts with hydrogen when heated in the presence of nickel catalyst to form ethane. Y = Hydrogen gas = H2 ↑ Question.2 Write the names of the following compounds. H2SO4 acid in this reaction. For example, (d) Lime water is prepared by keeping a suspension of calcium hydroxide overnight in a beaker. Or, Question 24. Question 22. (NCERT Exemplar) Draw the structures of two isomers of pentane, C5H12. All the questions are taken from NCERT Textbook and confined to CBSE Curriculum 2020-21, which are important for CBSE Exams 2020-2021. Write the chemical equations for all the chemical reactions involved. Answer: Also write the reaction. Answer: Question 25. When ethanol is heated with excess of concentrated sulphuric acid at 170° C (443K) it gets dehydrated to form ethene (an unsaturated hydrocarbon). CBSE papers with answers and solutions for chapter 4 Carbon and Its Compounds class 10th Science includes practice question papers with 10-12 questions in each test paper. Which class of carbon compounds is responsible for the depletion of ozone layer at the higher level of the atmosphere? [CBSE 2013] In this way soap micelles help in removing the dirt particles from the surface and this dirt dissolves in water and the surface gets cleaned and washed. H2SO4 at 443 K, Give any four uses of ethanoic acid. Now the contents are poured into a beaker containing 20 – 50 ml water. Answer: The reaction which converts Alkenes into Alkanes is called Addition Reaction. Vapours having sweet smell or fruity smell are observed. (c) Ethanoic acid reacts with a dilute solution of sodium hydroxide. When soap is dissolved in water, its hydrophobic end attach themselves to dirt and remove it from the cloth. (a) In favour of‘Alcohol-free world’: (b) ‘Alcohol drinking should not be portrayed on media’ because young people and children are greatly influenced by the media. With the help of an example, explain the process of hydrogenation. CH3CH2COCH3, Butanone. Answer: (2015 OD) List two problems that arise due to the use of detergents instead of soaps. Identify the functional group present in the organic compound. Question 1. CH3COOH + Na2CO3 → CH3COONa + CO2 + H2O, In test tube B, calcium hydroxide reacts with carbon dioxide to form a milky solution of calcium carbonate. of covalent bonds in propane is 10. Soap has one polar end (the end with sodium or potassium ion) and one non-polar end (the end with fatty acid chain) as shown in the figure. Write chemical equations to show what happens when Addition reactions are a characteristic property of unsaturated hydrocarbons, i.e., Alkenes and Alkynes. Answer: The molecule of alkene family are represented by a general formula CnH2n. Soaps: Question 1. Answer: Answer: Most of the dirt particles on skin or clothes are oily in nature. Answer: Answer: We will observe sweet smell due to the formation of ester. Carbon, Group (14) element in the Periodic Table, is known to form compounds with many elements. Carbon compounds generally have low melting and boiling points because carbon compounds are generally formed by covalent bonds in which the force of attraction between their molecules is not very strong. Ethanoic acid reacts with sodium hydrogen carbonate to evolve carbon dioxide along with the formation of salt and water. Carbon atoms have 4 electrons in their outermost shell. Structure of butanol: CH3 – CH2 – CH2 – CH2OH a) Helps to improve analytical skills in Class 10 students. Alkanes do not decolourise red-brown colour of bromine water. NCERT Extra Questions for Class 10 Science Chapter 4 Carbon and its Compounds with Answers will help to score more marks in your CBSE Board Exams. A compound made up of hydrogen and carbon is called hydrocarbon. (c) Heptanal So needs to gain or lose electrons to attain noblegas configuration. The general formula of saturated hydrocarbons or alkanes is CnH2n+2 where n is the number of carbon atoms in one molecule of the alkane. What is meant by homologous series of carbon compounds? (ii) Saponification. Why does carbon form strong bonds with most other elements? Detergents are non-biodegradable substances. What is the function of cone. (2014 D) Name of an aldehyde: Butanal Carboxylic acid, C2H4O2: (i) Carboxylic acid: (b) When ethanol is heated with excess of concentrated sulphuric acid at 170°C (443 K), it gets dehydrated to form ethene, (c) Ethanol reacts with sodium to form sodium ethoxide and hydrogen gas. We have Provided Carbon and Its Compounds Class 10 Science MCQs Questions with Answers to help students understand the concept very well. (2012 OD) Detergent can lather well even in hard water because they do not form insoluble calcium or magnesium salts with water. Write the chemical equation for the reaction and write the chemical name of the product formed. Write their structures and name them. (2014 D) Acetic acid freezes at 290 K to form crystals which look like glaciers, so pure ethanoic acid is known as glacial acetic acid. (i) Alkenes, CnH2n Alkenes burn in air with a yellow and sooty flame. (i) alkenes, and (2015 D, 2017 D) Answer: Question 5. Each such series has same general molecular formula and has a general scientific name. First, the molecules of soap arrange themselves in micelle form and trap the dirt at the centre of the cluster. The solution is decanted and is transferred to another beaker. H2SO4 to form sweet smelling compounds called esters. Answer: Identify and name P and Q. Essential conditions for the reaction are: Question 21. Question 17. They are called isomers because both have same molecular formula but different structural formula (having different functional groups). By practicing HOTS Questions for class 10 science, you can think creatively, and innovatively while answering the board exam papers. The phenomenon of occurring two or more different organic compounds having the same molecular formula but different structures is called ‘structural isomerism’. Answer: Answer: For class 10. Alkanes generally burn in air with a blue and non-sooty flame. For this purpose, bromine is used in the form of bromine water. Members of homologous series of aldehydes: Ethanoic acid is used in making synthetic vinegar. What happens when ethanoic acid reacts with (i) magnesium, (ii) sodium carbonate, and (iii) sodium hydroxide? It is used in medicine, to synthesize many important compounds, it is an excellent solvent. Structure: (iii) Compound ‘X’: Easter Detergents are generally ammonium or sulphonate salts of long chain carboxylic acids. Answer: CH3 – CH3 + O2 → 2CO2 + 3H2O + Heat + Light, Question 18. What is an oxidising agent? (2015 D) Draw the structures of two isomers of butane, C4H10. It is therefore ethanol (C2H5OH). These compounds have low melting and low boiling points. (iv) Ethanol is heated with cone. (ii) Butene Answer: VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTION [1 Mark] – Year 2007. Name the functional groups present in the following compounds: Answer: When a dirty cloth is put in water containing dissolved soap, the oil does not dissolve in water. Answer: (c) Substitution. (b) ethanol is heated with excess cone. (a) Differentiate between alkanes and alkenes. Thus more molecules of soaps are attached to dirt having their one end suspended in water to form a micelle. (2012 D) Write the necessary chemical equation in each case. Write the electron dot structure of ethane molecule, C2H6. List two reasons for carbon forming a large number of compounds. For example, Ethene undergoes addition reaction with hydrogen when heated in the presence of nickel catalyst to form ethane saturated hydrocarbon. (d) How can a solution of lime water be prepared in the laboratory? Draw the structures of diamond and graphite. A compound X is formed by the reaction of a carboxylic acid C 2 H 4 O 2 and an alcohol in presence of a few drops of H 2 SO 4. A detergent works by making the oil and grease particles of dirty clothes dissolve in water through the formation of miscelles. The addition of bromine is used as a test for unsaturated compounds. (vi) which decolourises bromine solution in carbon tetrachloride. Question 22. The depletion of ozone layer is due to the use of chemicals called chlorofluorocarbons. Which property of ethanol makes it suitable for preparing medicines such as tincture iodine, cough syrup and other tonics? R – Sodium salt of ethanoic acid (sodium acetate) and gas evolved is hydrogen Class 10 Chemistry Chapter 4 Important Questions with Answers Carbon and its Compounds. Alcohol is used for making some medicines like cough syrups, tincture iodine, some tonics, etc. Addition of hydrogen is possible in Alkenes CnH2n and Alkynes CnH2n-2. This makes the cleaning of clothes difficult. It is used in the manufacture of dyes, perfumes, antiseptics, etc. Due to the small size of carbon atoms their nuclei hold the shared pairs of electrons between atoms strongly, leading to the formation of strong covalent bonds. When a dirty cloth is put in water containing dissolved soap, the oil does not dissolve in water. Not conduct electricity in molten state Important Questions of carbon atoms is possible ethanol. Of few elements ( c ) a piece of cloth to break these forces and b respectively particles. 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